The effect of dietary supplementation with sodium butyrate, β-glucan and vitamins (A, D3, E, K, C) on breeding indicators and immune parameters of juvenile African catfish was examined. The fish were fed with unenriched (group C) and enriched feed with a variable proportion of sodium butyrate/β-glucan, and constant content of vitamins (W1–W3). After the experiment, blood and the middle gut were collected. The microbiome of the gut was determined using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Liver tissue was collected for determination of expression of immune-related genes (HSP70, IL-1β, TNFα). W2 and W3 were characterized by the most favorable values of breeding indicators (p < 0.05). The highest blood cortisol concentration was in group C (71.25 ± 10.45 ng/mL), and significantly the lowest in W1 (46.03 ± 7.01 ng/ mL) (p < 0.05). The dominance of Cetobacterium was observed in all study groups, with the largest share in W3 (65.25%) and W1 (61.44%). Gene expression showed an increased number of HSP70 genes in W1. IL-1β and TNFα genes peaked at W3. The W3 variant turns out to be the most beneficial supplementation, due to the improvement of breeding and immunological parameters. The data obtained can be used to create a preparation for commercial use in the breeding of this species.

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