The effect of seasonal changes on habitat conditions and biological well-being of Macrobrachium prawns on a section of Ogun-Osun River Basin Channel, Southwestern Nigeria was investigated between June, 2015 and April, 2017. Morphological characterization of specimens collected revealed two populations of prawns in the genus Macrobrachium (M. macrobrachion and M. vollenhovenii) foraging together on this location. The study revealed that there is no significant variation (P>0.05) in the water quality parameters between seasons while sediment textural compositions vary significantly (P>0.05) between seasons. M. macrobrachion were more abundant in rainy seasons while M. vollenhovenii were more in dry seasons. However, condition factor (k) of the two prawns was better in rainy seasons than dry seasons. Results from this study revealed that seasonality affects habitat compositions and biological well-being of Macrobrachium prawns. Consequently, scientific observations recorded in this study will serve as important references in cultivation, assessment and management of prawn fisheries.

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