Background: Hagenia abyssinica leaves have been used traditionally for the management of different diseases including diabetes mellitus (DM) although the antidiabetic effect of different solvent fractions of hydromethanol H. abyssinica leaf extract has not been scientifically studied. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the in vivo hypoglycemic, antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic effects of the solvent fractions of Hagenia abyssinica leaf extract.

Methods: The antidiabetic effect of the solvent fractions was evaluated in normal, oral glucose loaded and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Hypoglycemic, antihyperglycemic, antidyslipidemic activities and effect on body weight change were evaluated after administration of three different doses of the solvent fractions (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg). One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test was used for data analysis, and p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: The crude hydromethanol extract of H. abyssinica leaves did not show any sign of toxicity at the dose of 2000 mg/kg in mice. In normoglycemic mice, both aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions of H. abyssinica leaves showed significant (P<0.05) hypoglycemic activity. In oral glucose loaded mice, the two doses of the aqueous fraction, 200 mg/kg (p<0.05) and 400 mg/kg (p<0.001), showed a significant antihyperglycemic effect at 60 and 120 minute post-oral glucose loading while the ethyl acetate fraction showed significant antihyperglycemic effect at 60 (P<0.05 for 200 mg/kg and P<0.001 for 400 mg/kg) and 120 min (P<0.01 for 400 mg/kg) post-oral glucose loading. In single dose-treated diabetic mice, all doses of the solvent fractions caused a significant (P<0.05) reduction in blood glucose level except 100 mg/kg of the aqueous and chloroform fractions. Additionally, repeated daily treatment with the aqueous fraction significantly reduced hyperglycemia, body weight loss, and improved dyslipidemia of diabetic mice.

Conclusion: This study has revealed that the solvent fractions of H. abyssinica leaves possess in vivo blood-glucoselowering activities on normal, oral glucose loaded, and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Additionally, the aqueous fraction prevented diabetic body weight loss and dyslipidemia in mice after repeated daily dose administration.

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