Background

The leaves of Bersama abyssinica are used by traditional healers and the community for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Thus, the current study intended to evaluate the hypoglycemic, anti-diabetic, and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Bersama abyssinica.

Methods

The solvent fractions of Bersama abyssinica leaves were prepared. A total of 132 healthy, male Swiss albino mice weighing 20–28 grams (age of 6–10 weeks) were used. The antidiabetic activity of all the doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of Bersama abyssinica solvent fractions was evaluated by animal models: normoglycemic mice, oral glucose loaded mice, and diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (150mg/kg body weight). The effect of the plant extract on body weight and serum lipid levels were measured in diabetic mice. Statistical analysis was performed by using statistical package for social sciences version 24. The analyses were carried out using one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. The result was considered significant when p <0.05.

Results

The solvent fractions of B. abyssinica at all tested doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) exhibited significant (P<0.05–0.001) BGL reduction in all animal models. In hypoglycemic activity, the percentage reduction of baseline BGL was 25.90%, 26.36%, 38.43%, 30.96% and 49.42% for EAF200mg/kg, AQF200mg/kg, EAF400mg/kg, AQF400mg/kg, and GLC 5mg/kg, respectively. B. abyssinica at the dose of AQF 200 mg/kg (p<0.05), AQF 400mg/kg (p<0.001), EAF 200mg/kg (p<0.01), and GLC 5mg/kg (p<0.001) significantly reduced the BGL following 1-hour post-treatment as compared to the negative control. Likewise, the higher doses of the solvent fractions (400mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) reduced the BGL following 2- and 3-hours post-treatment as compared to the negative control. Daily administration of aqueous fraction of B. abyssinica caused a maximum reduction in fasting BGL at the fourteenth day of administration by 33.29%, 38.59%, 52.71%, and 59.66%, respectively, for AQF100, AQF200, AQF400, and GLC 5mg/kg. The aqueous fraction of B. abyssinica and the glibenclamide significantly (p<0.05) prevent loss of body weight and showed improvement in serum lipid levels.

Conclusion

The solvent fractions of Bersama abyssinica exhibit noticeable antidiabetic activity in all animal models (normoglycemic mice, oral glucose loaded mice, and diabetic mice) and showed improvement in body weight and serum lipid profile levels, which rationalizes the claimed use of the B. abyssinica in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

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