Nanotechnology holds significance in all fields of research, and the formation and surface alterations of nanomaterials are particularly important in this discipline. Nanoformulations synthesized with bioactive plant components play a crucial role in the improvement of several therapeutics and diagnostics. In the present study, we reported the synthesis of a curcumin nanoformulation (CN) by using curcumin and D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS). The synthesized CN was characterized using dynamic light scattering, UV-Visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, it was evaluated for solubility, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, stability, in vitro release, and anticancer potentials. The role of TPGS in the synthesis of CN was validated. The synthesized CN exhibited a size of 6.2 ± 1.9 nm, needle-shaped morphology, a polydispersity index of 0.164, and zeta potential of − 10.1 ± 3.21 mV, as determined by characterization techniques. Its water solubility was 2.5 × 104 times higher than that of pure curcumin. The encapsulation efficiency and curcumin loading efficiency of the synthesized CN were found to be 80 and 10%, respectively, with storage stability exceeding 30 days. Moreover, the synthesized CN demonstrated significant in vitro anticancer activity against the colorectal cancer cell line HCT-116, with an IC50 value of 12.74 ± 0.54 μM at 24 h.

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