Introduction. In Ethiopia, traditionally, the leaves of Calpurnia aurea have been utilized to treat peptic ulcer disease. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the antiulcer activity of Calpurnia aurea hydromethanolic leaf extract and solvent fractions in rats. Methods. The ulcer-healing potential of the crude test extract was assessed in rats by adopting pyloric ligation-, acidified ethanol-, and acetic acid-induced ulcer methods; while, in solvent fractions, the acidified ethanol-induced ulcer model was used. In all models, three serial test doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) were given and the antiulcer activity was investigated. Standard drugs like sucralfate (100 mg/kg), omeprazole (20 mg/kg), and cimetidine (100 mg/kg) have been used as a positive control; whereas distilled water (10 mL/kg) was used as the negative control. Parameters like ulcer index, total acidity, pH, gastric volume, and gastric mucin level were all measured. Results. In an acute toxicity study, the test extract at the limit test dose (2 g/kg) was safe following a single dose administration. In pyloric ligation-induced ulcers, the plant extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly reduced the ulcer index, the volume of stomach secretion, and total acidity while raising gastric pH and mucus content (). Likewise, in the acidified ethanol- and acetic acid-induced ulcer models, the extract at both test doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) also displayed a substantial reduction () in ulcer index. Among the fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction revealed remarkable cytoprotective activity at all test doses and the aqueous fraction at 400 mg/kg (). In contrast, the effect of chloroform fraction was found to be negligible. The peak ulcer inhibition was noted at 400 mg/kg of ethyl acetate fraction (52.4%). Conclusion. The study showed that the crude extract and solvent fractions possess remarkable antiulcer activity.

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