Extracellular vesicles (EVs), crucial in facilitating the transport of diverse molecular cargoes for intercellular communication, have shown great potential in diagnostics, therapeutics, and drug delivery. The challenge of developing effective preparation methods for EVs is heightened by their intrinsic heterogeneity and complexity. Here, a novel strategy for high EV enrichment is developed by utilizing EV-affinitive-modified cellulose nanofibrils. Specifically, modified cellulose with rich carboxyl groups has outstanding dispersing properties, able to be dispersed into cellulose nanofibrils in solution. These cellulose nanofibrils are utilized as scaffolds for the immobilization of EV-affinitive antibody of CD63 by chemical conjugation. The CD63-modified nanofibrils demonstrate a superior EV capture efficiency of 86.4% compared with other reported methods. The high performance of this system is further validated by the efficient capture of EVs from biological blood plasma, allowing the detection of bioactive markers from EV-derived miRNAs and proteins. The authors envision that these modified cellulose nanofibrils of enhanced capability on EV enrichment will open new avenues in various biomedical applications.

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